Profile

Introduction

Profile Name ISO 19115:2003 ECDS
Profile Version 3.0

The purpose of the metadata profile for ECDS is to identify the metadata required to accurately describe ECDS datasets. The ECDS profile is a subset of the international standard ISO 19115:2003. In addition, the ECDS profile has adopted the usage of supplementary code lists and vocabularies that assist in the description of climate and environmental resources.

In general, the ECDS profile is more strict than the ISO standard in that some entities which are optional in the ISO standard are made mandatory in the ECDS profile. Some restrictions on the number of entities permitted has also been made. Even though there are changes to the ISO standard, any metadata post that is in accordance with the ECDS profile will also be in accordance with the ISO standard.

The content of this specification might be a bit too technical for some users. However, it aims to be structured in a way that anyone with some understanding about the ISO standard and profiles can benefit from it. For a more in depth specification we refer to the official ISO standard specification.

Please read Profile Structure for a brief overview of the ECDS profile. It describes what the major parts of the profile are and how it is structured. If there are any confusions when reading the Profile Specification, please have a look at Understanding the Specification to understand it better. Types and Code Values are also included to better understand the specifics of what goes in to a metadata post.

References

About The Profile

The ECDS profile contains many but not all the entities defined in the ISO standard. The subset we have chosen for the ECDS profile contains entities to describe the metadata itself, the dataset, distribution and quality. The ECDS profile establishes no additional elements besides those part of the ISO standard. This chapter explains in short what parts are included in the ECDS profile. For a more technical specification, please see the chapter Metadata. Note that some of the names used in this chapter are different from the names used in the specification. This is for clarity and the differences should be obvious.

Metadata

This part of the ECDS profile contains information about the metadata post itself. All values are fixed or generated when using the ECDS portal.

File Identifier - Generated identifier for the specific metadata post.

Language - Fixed to English.

Scope - Fixed to Dataset.

Date - Generated when the metadata is created.

Metadata Standard Name - Fixed to ISO 19115:2003 ECDS

Metadata Standard Version - Fixed to 3.0

Contact - Generated from the logged in user. It represents the party responsible for the metadata post. This should not to be confused with the other two types of contacts in the profile which are used for the dataset itself and the distribution of the dataset. The Contact consists of an Individual Name, an Organisation Name, an Electronic Mail Address and a Role. The Role for this specific Contact is fixed to Point Of Contact

Dataset

This part of the ECDS profile contains information about the actual dataset, the distribution of the dataset and the quality of the dataset. The values are submitted by the user when creating or updating a metadata post in the ECDS portal.

Title

A short text answering the questions what? where? and when? i.e. What has been researched? Where was the research conducted? and When was it conducted?

Revision

Indicates when major changes has been done to the dataset. It consists of a Date, and a Type which can be one of the types Creation, Revision and Publication.

Edition

It is good practice to have a version number of the dataset, if the dataset is changed now and then. This means that someone using your data knows what dataset (what version) has been used in their research. You can use your own notation of the version number; e g 1,2,3... or A,B,C...

Identifier

Title is not a unique identifier. There are several organisations from which you may receive a unique identifier for your data set. This may be useful when referring to your dataset in a publication. Datasets can be moved but the unique identifier is permanent. We recommend that the Digital Object Identifier System (doi) is used.

Other Citation Details

This is the reference that is used if someone has used your dataset and it is cited in an article. References may be provided in styles used by professional scientific journals. The organisation DataCite deals with citation of datasets.

Abstract

Brief description of the dataset (not the project result).

Status

The state on the dataset. Please see Process Code for a complete list of available states.

Points of Contacts

The parties or persons to contact regarding questions about the dataset. Every Point Of Contact consists of an Individual Name, an Organisation Name, an Electronic Mail Address and a Role. The Role for the Points of Contact can be either Point Of Contact or Principle Investigator. We recommend that the user specifies at least one of each type.

Graphical Overviews

Provides any graphics which illustrates the dataset. Could be a photo from the site or a graph showing a time series of the data or anything which you think illustrates the dataset. The user may submit as many illustrations as needed. The Graphic Overviews consists of a File which should be an URL to the illustration on-line, a Description of the graphic that illustrates the dataset, and the Format of the illustration. i.e. jpg, png, tiff...

Keywords

At least one Keyword must be submitted, but any number will do. Keywords in the ECDS profile is selected from the GCMD Science keywords.

Use Limitation

Limitation affecting the fitness for use of the dataset, for example “The quality of the data is not good enough to be used as input observation data in climatological models”.

Access Constraint

We suggest you use Other Restrictions and Other constraints to specify any constraints.

Other Constraints

Text specification of the constraints that are used. We suggest you use the Creative Commons License and write “Creative Commons Attribution". This means (in short) that this license lets others distribute, remix, tweak and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.

Language

Language used in the dataset. This should not be confused with the Language of the metadata post which specifies the language in the metadata post itself.

Topic Category

High-level geographic theme from http://gcmd.nasa.gov/User/difguide/iso_topics.html. This is central to the ISO standard. The user may specify any number of categories.

Geographic Extent

Geographic position for the dataset represented as a bounding box (west longitude, east longitude, north latitude and south latitude).

Temporal Extent

Time period of the content of the dataset represented as a time period (begin date, end date). The time reference system is fixed to Gregorian.

Other Extent

If other extents are important, such as vertical extent, it can be specified here.

Distributor

The person or party whom to contact regarding the distribution of the dataset. The Distributor consists of an Individual Name, an Organisation Name, an Electronic Mail Address and a Role. We suggest you use Distributor as Role.

Distribution Format

Describes the format in which the dataset is available in. It contains a Name (e.g. xml, json, csv, grib, shape) and a Version when applicable (e.g. 2007 for Excel or 2 for grib)

On-line Resources

References to the actual dataset. Every Resource contains an URL directly to the dataset or a portal where the dataset is accessable, and a Description about the specified Resouce. In the ECDS portal you add the dataset or portal (as an URL or uploaded file) when creating or editing your metadata post. This is why there is no Resources in the form. They are automatically attached as On-line Resources to the metadata post by the ECDS portal.

Quality Statement

Provides overall information about the quality of the content in the dataset, such as which instruments have been used, the process by which the data are created, and the quality control of the data. The Scope of the dataset is fixed to Dataset in the ECDS portal.

Technical Notes

Starting with Metadata every section describes an entity or value in the profile. Every section specifies a brief description and useful information about the entity or value. It also describes the context in which it reside, and any constraints of conditions if there are any. There are also a short snipplet of how the entity of value are specified in the metadata post.

Necessity

All entities and values falls in one of the following categories

  • Optional - if the entity or value may or may not be included
  • Mandatory - if the entity or value must be included
  • Conditional - if the entity or value must be included depending on some other entity or value.

Number

Entities and values must be specified a certain number of times. The valid number of instances can be one of the following.

  • 1 - means one and only one instance is allowed
  • 0..N - means zero or more instances are allowed
  • 1..N - means one or more instances are allowed

Type

Entities and values all have an associated type. See Types for definitions of all available types. For entities there is a reference to the entity specification.


Metadata

The root entity contains information about the metadata post itself. Besides the fixed and generated values a responsible party must be specified. Metadata must also contain Identification Info where information about the dataset is specified, Distribution Info where information about the distribution of the dataset is specified and optionally Data Quality Info where statements about the quality of the dataset is specified.



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File Identifier

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Metadata

An unique identifier of the metadata post in the form of a universally unique identifier (UUID). Implementers should generate a new UUID and assign it to every new metadata post.


  01a8eac9-734f-41ca-a4ee-e1b423d3842f

Language

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Metadata

The language of the metadata post. Not to be confused with the language of the data itself. In ECDS, this must always be English. Represented with the value eng.


  eng

Hierarchy Level

Mandatory 1 Scope Code
Context Metadata

There are several scopes for Hierarchy Level (See Codes.Scope Code) but metadata posts in ECDS must all be set to dataset.




Contact

Mandatory 1 Responsible Party
Context Metadata

Information referring to the person or party responsible for the metadata post. The Responsible Party.Role is fixed to pointOfContact.


  ...

Date Stamp

Mandatory 1 Date Time
Context Metadata

Date and time when the metadata post was created. This should not be changed (even during harvesting). If the metadata post is changed in any way the author should update the citation date with a revision (See Citation.Date).


  2015-02-23T07:05:24

Metadata Standard Name

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Metadata

The metadata standard name is fixed to the ECDS profile name. i.e. ISO 19115:2003 ECDS


  ISO 19115:2003 ECDS

Metadata Standard Version

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Metadata

The metadata standard version is fixed to the ECDS profile version. i.e. 3.0


  3.0

Identification Info

Mandatory 1 Data Identification
Context Metadata

Entity containing information about the dataset.


  ...

Distribution Info

Mandatory 1 Distribution
Context Metadata

Entity containing information about the distributor and distribution and of the dataset.


  ...

Data Quality Info

Optional 1 Data Quality
Context Metadata

Optional entity containing information about the quality of the dataset.


  ...

Data Identification

Context Metadata.Identification Info

Information about the dataset. The main parts are Citation, Abstract, Point Of Contact, Graphic Overview, Descriptive Keywords, Resource Constraints and Extent.


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Citation

Mandatory 1 Citation
Context Data Identification

Information to be used when citing the dataset. Citation.Date should be used to reflect the changes made on this metadata post. Citation.Identifier Code is reserved for the Digital Object Identifier System (doi) and should not be filled out by a user.


  ...

Abstract

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Data Identification

A brief narrative summary of the data.


  Abstract information about the data

Status

Mandatory 1 Process Code
Context Data Identification

The state of the data.




Point Of Contact

Mandatory 1..N Responsible Party
Context Data Identification

A list of persons or parties to contact concerning the dataset. Valid values for Responsible Party.Role are pointOfContact and principalInvestigator. At least one of each is preferable.


  ...

Graphic Overview

Optional 0..N Entity
Context Data Identification

Illustrations of the dataset. The intent of this is so that anyone can quickly get an overview of the data in a graphical way.



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File Name

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Data Identification.Graphic Overview

Name of the file with the illustration. This should be an URL that is reachable on-line.


  http://myorganization.com/overview.jpg

File Description

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Data Identification.Graphic Overview

Description of the graphic that illustrates the dataset.


  An overview of the findings

File Type

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Data Identification.Graphic Overview

Format of the illustration. e.g. png, jpg, tiff


  jpg

Descriptive Keywords

Mandatory 1 Entity
Context Data Identification

The ECDS profile uses one thesaurus to describe datasets. One or more keywords at any level can be added. The Thesaurus name is a Citation and should not be editable by the user. Citation.Title is fixed to GCMD Science keywords. Citation.Date is fixed to 2008-02-05. Citation.Date Type is fixed to publication. No other values are allowed in the Citation.



    ...
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          GCMD Science keywords




              2015-02-05









Keyword

Mandatory 1..N Text
Context Data Identification.Descriptive Keywords

List of Keywords describing the dataset. All available keywords can be found at http://gcmd.nasa.gov/learn/keyword_list.html. ECDS uses a subset of the listed values. This subset is the values under the EARTH SCIENCE node.


  Oceans > Bathymetry/Seafloor Topography

Resource Constrains

Mandatory 2 Entity
Context Data Identification

There are three types of constraints in the profile. Use Limitation is specified in the first instance while Access Constraints and Data Identification.Resource Constraints.Other Constraints are specified in the second.



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Use Limitation

Optional 1 Text
Context Data Identification.Resource Constrains

Limitation affecting the fitness for use of the dataset. Default is Other Constraints.


  Other Constraints

Access Constraints

Mandatory 1 Restriction Code
Context Data Identification.Resource Constrains

Any constraints to use the dataset. Default if otherRestrictions and a clarification in Other Constraints.




Other Constraints

Optional 1 Text
Context Data Identification.Resource Constrains

Text specification of the constraints that are used. Default is Creative Commons Attribution license


  Creative Commons Attribution

Language

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Data Identification

Language of the dataset. Not to be confused with the Metadata.Language of the metadata post. Should probably be English, Swedish or Other.


  eng

Topic Categories

Optional 0..N Topics
Context Data Identification

List of topics for the dataset. See Topics for mappings between keys and display values.


  oceans

Extent

Mandatory 1 Entity
Context Data Identification

Specifies geographical, temporal and optionally other extents. The Geographical Extent is defined by a bounding box (west longitude, east longitude, north latitude and south latitude). The Temporal Extent is defined as a Time Period (begin and end date). If other extents are important, such as vertical extent, it can be specified in the description.



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Description

Optional 1 Text
Context Data Identification.Extent

Any other extents.


  Description of extent

West Bound Longitude

Mandatory 1 Decimal
Context Data Identification.Extent

The western longitude delimiter.


  11.1133

East Bound Longitude

Mandatory 1 Decimal
Context Data Identification.Extent

The eastern longitude delimiter.


  24.167

South Bound Latitude

Mandatory 1 Decimal
Context Data Identification.Extent

The southern latitude delimiter.


  55.3392

North Bound Longitude

Mandatory 1 Decimal
Context Data Identification.Extent

The northern latitude delimiter.


  55.3392

Begin Position

Mandatory 1 Date
Context Data Identification.Extent

The begin date.

2013-02-01

End Position

Mandatory 1 Date
Context Data Identification.Extent

The end date.

2013-02-01

Distribution

Context Metadata.Distribution Info

Distribution information consist of a Distributor Contact, a list of Distributor Formats and a list of Distributor Transfer Options.




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Distributor Contact

Optional 0..N Responsible Party
Context Distribution

This Contact information refers to the person of party responsible for the distribution of the dataset.


  ...

Distributor Format

Optional 0..N Entity
Context Distribution

List of all formats the data may be distributed in. Common formats are xml, json and csv.



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Name

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Distribution.Distributor Format

The name of the format. For example xml, json or csv. Be clear if your data is bundled in some enveloping format such as zip or tar.


  txt

Version

Optional 1 Text
Context Distribution.Distributor Format

The version of the format. For many formats this is not applicable. For example json or txt. But may be used where the version is specified. e.g. 2007 for Excel or 2 for grib.


  txt

Distributor Transfer Options

Optional 0..N Entity
Context Distribution

List of on-line resources which contains the dataset or dataset portals.





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Linkage

Mandatory 1 URL
Context Distribution.Distributor Transfer Options

An URL to an on-line resource, i.e. the dataset, or to a portal where the dataset is stored.


  http://myorganization.com/arctic-winter.txt

Description

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Distribution.Distributor Transfer Options

A brief description about the resource.


  Lake winter temperatures and volumes

Data Quality

Context Metadata.Data Quality Info

Optional entity to describe the quality of the data.




      ...




      ...


Level

Mandatory 1 Scope Code
Context Data Quality

The dataset level. Fixed in the ECDS profile to dataset.




Statement

Optional 1 Text
Context Data Quality

Any information about or reference to the quality of the data.


  Statement about the data quality

Citation

Context Data Identification.Citation
Context Data Identification.Descriptive Keywords

Citation information is used in two places in the ECDS profile. In Data Identification.Citation, it is used to define some of the core information about the dataset. In Data Identification.Descriptive Keywords it is used to define a thesaurus. Since only the former may be submitted by a user, the following descriptions will be targeted on that.


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Title

Mandatory 1 Text
Context Citation

A short text answering the questions what? where? and when? i.e. What has been researched? Where was the research conducted? and When was it conducted?


  Some Citation Title

Date

Mandatory 1..N Entity
Context Citation

Indicates when major changes has been done to the dataset.



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Date

Mandatory 1 Date
Context Citation.Date

The date of the change.


  2015-02-23

Date Type

Mandatory 1 Date Type Code
Context Citation.Date

The type of change that took place. Either creation, revision or publication.




Edition

Optional 1 Text
Context Citation

Any numbering if applicable.


  1

Identifier Code

Optional 1 Text
Context Citation

Reserved for the Digital Object Identifier System (doi).




      123


Other Citation Details

Optional 1 Text
Context Citation

This is the reference that is used if someone has used your dataset and it is cited in an article.


  Other Citation Ditails as text

Responsible Party

Context Metadata.Contact
Context Data Identification.Point Of Contact
Context Distribution.Distributor Contact

This entity contains information about parties responsible for different areas in the profile. To make the datasets and metadata posts more accessible it is a good idea to specify as much and accurate information as possible. Always try to specify an Individual Name, Organisation Name and an Electronic Mail Address if possible. This will help not only any stakeholder to communicate, but also makes it clear who is responsible for the metadata post.


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Individual Name

Conditional 1 Text
Context Responsible Party

Given name and surname of the person or party who is responsible. If Individual Name is omitted, then Organisation Name must be specified. Preferably both are specified.


  John Doe

Organisation Name

Conditional 1 Text
Context Responsible Party

Name of the organisation who is responsible. If Organisation Name is omitted, then an Individual Name must be specified. Preferably both are specified.


  My Organization

Electronic Mail Address

Optional 1 Text
Context Responsible Party

Email address to be used in communication with the person or party. If possible, an Electronic Mail Address should always be specified.






          john.doe@myorganization.com




Role

Mandatory 1 Role Code
Context Responsible Party

Role of the Responsible Party. Valid values may be a subset of Role Code. See the specific Responsible Party for details.





Types

There are only seven different types in the ECDS profile. Entity is used for grouping other entities and values together and the rest of the types are used for different kinds of values.

Entity

Groups other entities together. Does not hold any values of its own, but instead acts as a container.
For example specifying a Graphic Overview



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Text

The most common of the types are text. Values of this type may be any text.
For example specifying John Doe as Individual Name


  John Doe

Decimal

Values of this type must be decimal numbers to be valid.
For example specifying -12.5 as West Bound Longitude


  -12.5

URL

Resources available on line are represented by an URL. No relative or incomplete URL's are allowed.
For example specifying http://ecds.se/about as Linkage


  http://ecds.se/about

Date

Represents a date. The value must follow the format YYYY-MM-DD.
For example specifying 2015-02-25 as Date


  2015-02-25

Date Time

Represents both date and time. The value must follow the format YYYY-MM-DD'T'HH:MM:SS.
For example specifying 2015-02-25T08:32:44 as Date Stamp


  2015-02-25T08:32:44

Codes

Some values may not be arbitrary but instead chosen from a list of predefined codes. The ISO standard defines code lists in http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml. The following code lists are used in the ECDS profile.

Scope Code

List of codes representing different levels of metadata. The ECDS profile only supports dataset.
See Metadata.Hierarchy Level and Data Quality.Level


  • attribute - information applies to the attribute class
  • attributeType - information applies to the characteristic of a feature
  • collectionHardware - information applies to the collection hardware class
  • collectionSession - information applies to the collection session
  • dataset - information applies to the dataset
  • series - information applies to the series
  • nonGeographicDataset - information applies to non-geographic data
  • dimensionGroup - information applies to a dimension group
  • feature - information applies to a feature
  • featureType - information applies to a feature type
  • propertyType - information applies to a property type
  • fieldSession - information applies to a field session
  • software - information applies to a computer program or routine
  • service - information applies to a capability which a service provider entity makes available to a service user entity through a set of interfaces that define a behaviour, such as a use case
  • model - information applies to a copy or imitation of an existing or hypothetical object
  • tile - information applies to a tile, a spatial subset of geographic data

Process Code

List of codes representing the state of the dataset.
See Data Identification.Status


  • completed - production of the data has been completed
  • historicalArchive - data has been stored in an offline storage facility
  • obsolete - data is no longer relevant
  • onGoing - data is continually being updated
  • planned - fixed date has been established upon or by which the data will be created or updated
  • required - data needs to be generated or updated
  • underDevelopment - data is currently in the process of being created

Restriction Code

List of codes representing any constraints on the dataset.
See Data Identification.Resource Constrains.Access Constraints


  • copyright - exclusive right to the publication, production, or sale of the rights to a literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic work, or to the use of a commercial print or label, granted by law for a specified period of time to an author, composer, artist, distributor
  • patent - government has granted exclusive right to make, sell, use or license an invention or discovery
  • patentPending - produced or sold information awaiting a patent
  • trademark - a name, symbol, or other device identifying a product, officially registered and legally restricted to the use of the owner or manufacturer
  • license - formal permission to do something
  • intellectualPropertyRights - rights to financial benefit from and control of distribution of non-tangible property that is a result of creativity
  • restricted - withheld from general circulation or disclosure
  • otherRestrictions - limitation not listed

Date Type Code

List of codes representing the type of date.
See Citation.Date.Date Type


  • creation - date identifies when the resource was brought into existence
  • publication - date identifies when the resource was issued
  • revision - date identifies when the resource was examined or re-examined and imporved or amended

Role Code

List of codes representing the role of a responsible party.
See Responsible Party.Role


  • resourceProvider - party that supplies the resource
  • custodian - party that accepts accountability and responsability for the data and ensures appropriate care and maintenance of the resource
  • owner - party that owns the resource
  • user - party who uses the resource
  • distributor - party who distributes the resource
  • originator - party who created the resource
  • pointOfContact - party who can be contacted for acquiring knowledge about or acquisition of the resource
  • principalInvestigator - key party responsible for gathering information and conducting research
  • processor - party wha has processed the data in a manner such that the resource has been modified
  • publisher - party who published the resource
  • author - party who authored the resource

Lists

The ECDS profile uses one external list which is central to the ISO standard.

Topics

List of values for high-level geographic theme from http://gcmd.nasa.gov/User/difguide/iso_topics.html. See Data Identification.Topic Categories


  oceans
  • farming - Farming - Rearing of animals or cultivation of plants. For example, resources describing irrigation, aquaculture, herding, and pests and diseases affecting crops and livestock.

  • biota - Biota - Naturally occurring flora and fauna. For example, resources describing wildlife, biological sciences, ecology, wilderness, sea life, wetlands, and habitats.

  • boundaries - Boundaries - Legal land descriptions.

  • climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere - Climatology/Meteorology/Atmosphere - Atmospheric processes and phenomena. For example, resources describing cloud cover, weather, atmospheric conditions, climate change, and precipitation.

  • economy - Economy - Economic activities or employment. For example, resources describing labor, revenue, commerce, industry, tourism and ecotourism, forestry, fisheries, commercial or subsistence hunting, and exploration and exploitation of resources such as minerals, oil, and gas.

  • elevation - Elevation - Height above or below sea level. For example, resources describing altitude, bathymetry, digital elevation models, slope, and products derived from this information.

  • environment - Environment - Environmental resources, protection, and conservation. For example, resources describing pollution, waste storage and treatment, environmental impact assessment, environmental risk, and nature reserves.

  • geoscientificinformation - Geoscientific Information - Earth sciences. For example, resources describing geophysical features and processes, minerals, the composition, structure and origin of the earth’s rocks, earthquakes, volcanic activity, landslides, gravity information, soils, permafrost, hydrogeology, and erosion.

  • health - Health - Health services,human ecology, and safety. For example, resources describing human disease and illness, factors affecting health, hygiene, mental and physical health, substance abuse, and health services.

  • imageryBaseMapsEarthCover - Imagery/Base Maps/Earth Cover - Base maps. For example, resources describing land cover, topographic maps, and classified and unclassified images.

  • intelligenceMilitary - Intelligence/Military - Military bases, structures, and activities. For example, resources describing barracks, training grounds, military transportation, and information collection.

  • inlandWaters - Inland Waters - Inland water features, drainage systems, and their characteristics. For example, resources describing rivers and glaciers, salt lakes, water use plans, dams, currents, floods, water quality, and hydrographic charts.

  • location - Location - Positional information and services. For example, resources describing addresses, geodetic networks, postal zones and services, control points, and place names.

  • oceans - Oceans - Features and characteristics of salt water bodies excluding inland waters. For example, resources describing tides, tidal waves, coastal information, and reefs.

  • planningCadastre - Planning Cadastre - Land use. For example, resources describing zoning maps, cadastral surveys, and land ownership.

  • society - Society - Characteristics of societies and cultures. For example, resources describing natural settlements, anthropology, archaeology, education, traditional beliefs, manners and customs, demographic data, crime and justice, recreational areas and activities, social impact assessments, and census information.

  • structure - Structure - Man-made construction. For example, resources describing buildings, museums, churches, factories, housing, monuments, and towers.

  • transportation - Transportation - Means and aids for conveying people and goods. For example, resources describing roads, airports and airstrips, shipping routes, tunnels, nautical charts, vehicle or vessel location, aeronautical charts, and railways.

  • utilitiesCommunications - Utilities/Communications - Energy, water and waste systems, and communications infrastructure and services. For example, resources describing hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, and nuclear sources of energy, water purification and distribution, sewage collection and disposal, electricity and gas distribution, data communication, telecommunication, radio, and communication networks.